Career Tips - The Second Stage (1920-1939) In Career Counseling History

in Guidance

With the end of World War I and the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act, another transition began and, with the economic depression of the 1930s, these social and legislative processes focused U. S. society on educational counseling and solidified the role of vocational guidance in the schools. "The union of education, of social work, and of psychometrics in the vocational guidance of youth and adults was now somewhat more complete" (Super, 1974). Elementary and secondary education received an influx of students as a result of increased needs for literacy to cope with increasing demands of industrialization and the increase in numbers of school-age children as a direct result of the boom in pregnancies following the end of World War I.
Educational counseling emerged from the work of humanitarian, progressive social reformers in the schools. Such reformers included Jesse B. Davis, who served as a "counselor on educational and career problems" at Central High School in Detroit in 1898, and Eli Weaver, who was a principal in the New York City school system in 1906. Promoting career development in the schools, however, was slow work. For example, as late as the 1930s, no vocational guidance programs existed in at least half of the schools in U.S. cities with populations of 10,000 or more (Brewer, 1942).
Organized labor's strength was growing fast in the wake of the economic depression, and President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal was a response to the growing power of the unions as well as the loss of jobs. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was established in 1933 to provide training and employment opportunity for unemployed youth, and the educational services of the CCC were supervised by the U.S. Department of Education.
In 1921, NVGA published the first version of the "Principles and Practices of Vocational Guidance" (Borow, 1974). This publication contained the Association's statement of principles and has been revised periodically since then, with its most current version published in 1996. Also, the first field secretary of NVGA was hired in 1930. Robert Hoppock served in that role, and his duty was to forge stronger links between the headquarters and regional branches. This office was funded by grants from the J. C. Penney Foundation (in 1929) and later by the Carnegie Corporation.

Author Box
David Hale has 1 articles online

Dave Hale, Ph.D., is the CEO of DHI-Communications, an international business coaching and training consultancy, specializing in social networking business development and marketing. He is widely regarded as one of the top business coaches for Web 2.0 Entrepreneurs.

Add New Comment

Career Tips - The Second Stage (1920-1939) In Career Counseling History

Log in or Create Account to post a comment.
Security Code: Captcha Image Change Image
This article was published on 2010/04/02